What is Citation?
At some point in your course progress as a learner, you have got a tutor who instructs you to point out sources while writing a research paper. The reference which you use to support your research piece is known as the citation. It is used for identifying and referencing the source of information. It is quite a common practice in academic writing, and it handles specific objectives. Citation grants reader to check on and authenticate statement that is forming your opinion. It permits you the opportunity to endorse the community whose theory you’ve accepted to lead your debate.
Necessarily you are admitting that your analysis and expertise conformation beginning with the work and thoughts of others who appear previously. Also, quotation with proper reference cooperates reader to examine the relation between textbooks and column produced by the different authors. It also helps them to understand that how it connects to your concept.
Styles & Implementation
Distinctive styles of citations introduced by various institutions are used internationally. The most familiar referencing styles are mentioned below:
These common styles applied in two possible ways in a research paper:
First, you endorse a source with a concise explanation right after using it in a body of your researched material.
Specify precise data of the source at the closing point of the paper that is a citation list or bibliography. Furthermore, this well-explained entry includes essential publishing knowledge about the source which contains the title of the column, the columnist and disclosure date so a reader can find it conveniently.
All citation styles have a published guideline that specifies complete information on their usage and formats.
In educational standard, APA is well known as the American Psychological Association. It belongs to publication manual which is usual for writing and referencing style for social sciences in various universities around the world. APA utilizes in-text referencing (citations) and a reference checklist structure. While citing any reference in APA style, a recognized format is scholar/author name and publishing year. APA format is scholar date style to citing and referencing material in writing of any paper and publications. This style of referencing doesn’t require a learner to specify page number unless the direct quote has been used.
The MLA style is another style of referencing or bibliographic citation which can be applied widely for academic writing, principally in humanities. MLA accepts writing on language and literature as well. It is commonly uncomplicated and more sufficient than other styles. It allows managing a proper and reliable presentation of the sources which saves time spent on formatting.
An unproven narrative is that the style “Owen system” was present by an English visitor to Harvard University library. They like the citation system given by visitor and designate it as “Harvard system”.
Despite, it begins in biology; nowadays it is more common in humanities, history, and social science. It is recommended to use with scientific journals, including the significant biology journals. Harvard citations adhere to below format:
Author’s Last name, Author’s First Initial. (Published Year). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).
The Oxford referencing method is a note citation system introduced by the prestigious University of Oxford. Mostly it is referred to as documentary-note style. Oxford referencing style depends on two essential elements; footnote citations and a reference list at the end point of the paper. In the Oxford style, a superscript numeral is given after the usage of a statement. Further details to that reference can be found with the same number at the end of the same page.
The Chicago manual referencing style is a term guide for American English presented in University of Chicago Press since 1906. Chicago style is also known as an “author-date” system, so the citation in text revolves around the author(s) name and year of publication in round brackets. Chicago style source citations describe in two formats:
Notes and bibliography